List of potentially harmful chemicals which we try avoid in our personal care products
- AHA (alpha hydroxy acid): exfoliates the skin chemically instead of mechanically via abrasion, dries the skin and increases skin ageing. Supposed to be anti-wrinkle, found in many skin and hair care products. Used originally as solvent in cleaning compounds and for tanning leather. A smooth finish is achived by stripping the outer layer of the skin, irritated skin can puff up.
- Acetamide MEA: used in lipsticks and cream blushers to retain moisture. Causes adverse reactions, carcinogenic, mutagenic, toxic.
- Acetone: on EPA, RCRA, CERCLA hazardous waste lists. Inhalation can cause dryness of the mouth and throat, dizziness, nausea, problems with co-ordination, slurred speech, drowsiness, and coma in severe exposure. Acts primarily as a central nervous system (CNS) depressant. Found in colognes, dishwashing liquids, detergents, nail enamel removers.
- Alkyl-phenol-ethoxylades: used in shampoos. Mimics oestrogen, carcinogenic, mutagenic, toxic. Causes adverse reactions. Reduces sperm count.
- Ammonium laureth sulphate: found in hair and bubble bath products. Laureth contains ether that is listed as carcinogenic, mutagenic and toxic, and causes adverse reactions.
- Aluminium: used as colour additive in cosmetics, especially eye shadows. Listed as carcinogenic, toxic and mutagenic.
- a-Pinene: sensitiser, damaging to the immune system. Found in bar and liquid hand soaps, colognes, shaving creams, deodorants, dishwashing liquids, air fresheners.
- a-Terpineol: highly irritating to mucous membranes, aspiration into the lungs can produce pneumonitis or even fatal oedema, can also cause excitement, ataxia (loss of muscular coordination), hypothermia, CNS respiratory depression, headache. Prevent repeated or prolonged skin contact. Found in perfumes, colognes, laundry detergents, bleach powders, laundry bleaches, fabric softeners, air fresheners, Vaseline lotion, soaps, hairsprays, after-shaves, roll-on deodorants.
- Bentonite: used in face masks, makeup, face powder. Supposed to draw out toxins and claimed to be non-toxic, but rats died when injected with it.
- Benzaldehyde: narcotic, sensitiser, local anaesthetic, CNS depressant. Causes irritation to the mouth, throat, eyes, skin, lungs and gastro-intestinal tract, causing nausea and abdominal pain, may cause kidney damage, do not use with contact lenses. Found in perfumes, colognes, hairsprays, laundry bleaches, deodorants, detergents, Vaseline lotion, shaving creams, shampoos, bar soaps, dishwashers, detergents.
- Benzene: found combined with other chemicals in many personal care products and is a known bone marrow poison; carcinogenic, mutagenic, toxic and causes adverse reactions.
- Benzyl acetate: carcinogenic, linked to pancreatic cancer, vapours irritating to eyes and respiratory passages, can be absorbed through the skin causing systemic effects, do not flush to sewer. Used in perfumes, colognes, shampoos, fabric softeners, air fresheners, dishwashing liquids and detergents, soaps, hairsprays, bleaches, after-shaves, deodorants.
- Benzyl alcohol: irritates the upper respiratory tract, causes headache, nausea, vomiting, dizziness, drop in blood pressure, CNS depression, and death in severe cases due to respiratory failure. Used in perfumes, colognes, soaps, shampoos, nail enamel removers, air fresheners, laundry bleaches and detergents, Vaseline lotion, deodorants, fabric softeners.
- Benzyl violet: used as colouring in various products, including nail treatments. A possible human carcinogen, according to the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC, group 2B). On US and European labels it is frequently listed as violet 2 or violet 6B.
- BHA and BHT (butylated hydroxyamisole and butylated hdroxytolune): closely related to synthetic antioxidants used as preservatives in lipsticks and moisturisers, and other cosmetics. They are widely used as food preservatives too, and can cause allergic reactions in skin. The International Agency of Research on Cancer classifies BHA as a possible human carcinogen. The European Commission of Endocrine Disruptors has listed BHA as a category 1 priority substance based on evidence that it interferes with hormone function. BHT is harmful to fish and wildlife.
- Camphor: local irritant and CNS stimulant, readily absorbed through body tissues. Causes irritation of eyes, nose and throat, dizziness, confusion, nausea, twitching muscles and convulsions. Avoid inhalation of vapours. Found in perfumes, shaving creams, nail enamels, fabric softeners, dishwashers, detergents, air fresheners.
- Coal tar derivatives: many kinds of shampoo designed to treat dandruff and flaky scalp contain these. Disguised with names such as FD, FD&C or D&C colour. Cause potentially severe allergic reactions, asthma attacks, fatigue, nervousness, headaches, nausea, lack of concentration, redness of skin and a burning sensation, changes in skin pigmentation and a rash. Can irritate the nose and throat, causing hoarseness, nosebleeds, coughing and phlegm. Is a carcinogen. A 2001 California study published in the International Journal of Cancer found that women who used to permanent hair dyes once a month were twice as likely to develop bladder cancer as those who did not! There are many factors involved with hair colouring. Studies in the US have suggested that the chemical reaction created by hair colouring products may have a carcinogenic effect and have also associated hair colourings with an increased risk of non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma. Try to avoid dark hair dyes entirely and choose products made with natural ingredients instead. Banned in EU cosmetics!
- Cocamide DEA (also listed as cocamide diethanolamine, triethanolamine, monoethanolamine, cocamide DEA): emulsifiers and foamers in a range of products including shampoos, face and body washes, make-up. Nitrosamines can form in all cosmetic ingredients containing amines. Nitrosamines and amino derivatives with nitrogen compounds are known to be carcinogens and to cause allergic reactions and contact dermatitis. DEA applied to the skin can be carcinogenic. In 1998 the National Toxicology Program in the US published a study showing that topical skin application of cocamide DEA caused liver tumours in mice and rats.
- Cocomidopropyl betaine: used in shampoos in combination with other surfactants, synthetic, causes eyelid dermatitis.
- Carboner 9ds34, 940, 941, 960, 961C: used as thickener and stabiliser in creams, toothpastes, eye makeup, bathing products. May cause eye irritation.
- DEA (diethanolamine): a synthetic solvent, detergent and humectant (moisturiser) widely used in brake fluid and as an industrial degreaser and antifreeze. Mostly used in liquid soaps, shampoos and conditioners. Also found in hair dyes, lotions, creams, bubble baths, liquid dishwashing detergents and laundry soaps. Can harm the liver, kidneys and pancreas. May cause cancer in various organs, and irritates skin, eyes, mucous membranes. Poses health risk to infants and young children in particular. Forms nitrosamines known to be carcinogens. Causes allergic reactions and contact dermatitis, is hazardous and toxic.
- Dibutyl phthalate: used in nail enamel in combination with toluene and formaldehyde, also used in epoxy resins, insect repellents and clothing and as a solvent for perfumes, oils and textiles. Is a colourless, oily liquid with a weak aromatic odour, and causes irritation of eyes, nose and throat, abdominal pain, diarrhoea, nausea, tearing of eyes, vomiting and dizziness. Long-term exposure may cause liver and kidney damage, harm development of the fetus and male testes, cause mutations and reproductive damage, cause headache, drowsiness and seizures, affect the nervous system, harm the unborn child, and impair fertility. Is dangerous to the environment, and is banned in EU cosmetics.
- Dimethylamine: known to cause cancer, can irritate and cause severe burns of the skin, and irritate and burn the eyes with possible permanent damage, even causing blindness. Prolonged exposure may damage the liver, and cause cough, headache, sore throat, shortness of breath, dizziness, nausea, slurred speech, and an irritable mood. Can affect you when breathed in and by passing through the skin. Used in de-hairing products, detergents and pesticides, in leather tanning and in pharmaceutical products. Banned in EU cosmetics.
- Dioform: many toothpastes and other tooth whiteners contain it. Damages tooth enamel.
- Dioxane: also called 1,4 dioxane, is a flammable liquid that may form explosive chemicals, especially when anhydrous (very dry). Enters the body when people breathe air or consume water or food contaminated with dioxane, can also be absorbed through skin contact. Causes watering of the eyes, redness of skin and eyes, pain, headache, nausea, cough, sore throat, abdominal pain, dizziness, drowsiness, vomiting, unconsciousness. Is used in facial moisturisers/treatments, shampoos and a variety of cosmetics.
- Disodium EDTA: may contain dangerous levels of ethylene oxide and or dixane, both potent toxins, and is carcinogenic. Is a manufacturing by-product, also used as a chelating agent.
- Hydantoin DMDM: causes dermatitis, may release formaldehyde and is a suspected carcinogen. Acts as a preservative. Rats develop cancer when injected with this chemical.
- Elastin: supposedly improves the elasticity of the skin when applied topically, but there is no proof that this is true.
- Ethanol: on EPA hazardous waste list. Causes fatigue and CNS disorders, and is irritating to eyes and upper respiratory tract even in low concentrations. Inhalation of ethanol vapours can have effects similar to those characteristic of ingestion. These include an initial stimulatory effect followed by drowsiness, impaired vision, ataxia and stupor. Found in bar and liquid hand soaps, colognes, perfumes, shaving creams, deodorants, dishwashing liquids, air fresheners.
- Ethyl acetate: narcotic, on EPA hazardous waste list, irritating to the eyes and respiratory tract, may cause headache and narcosis (stupor), has a de-fatting effect on skin and may cause drying and cracking, and can cause anaemia with leukocytosis and damage to liver and kidneys. Wash thoroughly after handling. Found in after-shaves, colognes, perfumes, shampoos, nail enamels, nail enamel removers, fabric softeners, dishwashing liquids.
- Ethylacrylate: acrylates and methacylates are monomers that are combined with other monomers or polymers to produce plastics used in cosmetics, medicine, dentistry and manufacturing industries. When inhaled cause cough, shortness of breath, sore throat, redness of eyes and skin, pain, abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, diarrhoea, skin allergy, liver and kidney damage, severe irritation and burns of the eyes and skin, respiratory problems, and sensitisation by skin contact. Is a flammable and reactive liquid, and therefore a fire and explosion hazard. Banned in EU cosmetics.
- FDC-n (FD&C): various artificial colours. Some are simply irritants, while others are strong carcinogens.
- Fluoride: hazardous chemical, linked to cancer years ago, but no one was listening. Fluoridated toothpaste is especially dangerous to young children, who tend to swallow it after brushing their teeth. Supposed to stop tooth decay, it seems just to do the opposite and scientists are now linking fluoride to dental deformity, arthritis, allergic reactions and Crohn’s disease. Is a manufacturing toxic by-product.
- Formaldehyde: owing to its bad reputation it is sometimes hidden under names such as DMDM hydantoin, methanol, formic aldehyde, methyl aldehyde, oxomethane, oxymethane, diazolidinyl urea, imidazolidinyl urea; trade name is formalin. Immune system toxicant used as a preservative, especially in nail products, hair colourants, false eyelash adhesives, and many others. Released by diazolidinyl urea, causes dermatitis and other adverse effects such as burning sensations, cough, headache, nausea, shortness of breath, watering eyes and blurred vision, is very toxic when inhaled or swallowed, is a skin irritant and a suspected carcinogen. Is corrosive and should be handled with extreme caution, can irritate the nose, throat and mouth, is a highly flammable gas and a dangerous fire hazard.
- g-Terpinene: causes asthma and CNS disorders. Found in colognes, perfumes, soaps, shaving creams, deodorants, air fresheners.
- Hydroquinone: used in skin-lightening creams. Increases skin’s exposure to UVA/UNB, and is linked to organ toxicity, developmental toxicity, immunotoxicity and neurotoxicity.
- Imidazolidinyl urea: a skin sensitiser, can instigate an immune system response that includes itching, burning, scaling, hives, blisters of skin, can also cause severe respiratory reactions and gastro-intestinal and liver toxicity. Used in a huge variety of cosmetics and personal care products.
- Lauramide DEA: potentially contaminated with impurities, is linked to cancer and other significant health problems. Used in many cosmetics, shampoos, hair colours, sprays and bleaches, liquid hand soaps, bubble baths, shaving creams, bath oils, etc.
- Lead (also called lead acetate): often not listed on labels, is a contaminant in many lipsticks (even well known brand names) and hair dyes. Evidence of a carcinogenic effect, may cause kidney and brain damage, damage to the blood cells causes anaemia, also causes cough, sore throat, redness of eyes and skin, pain, abdominal cramps, constipation, convulsions, nausea and vomiting. Is a carcinogen and hormone disrupter.
- Mercury: best known name in vaccines is thimerosal, also called mercuric oxide, phenyl mercury acetate, phenyl mercuric benzoate, mercurochrome. Can affect you when breathed in and by passing through your skin, irritates skin and eyes, may cause allergy and neurological impairment, negatively affects brain development, causes cough, abdominal pain, diarrhoea, shortness of breath, vomiting, fever and elevated body temperature. Used in eye drops, mascaras, eye liners, dental amalgam fillings, skin-lightening creams, nasal sprays, soaps, haemorrhoid treatments, antiseptics and as preservative in eye make-up. Mercury fumes can collect inside a jar of skin cream or a tube of mascara and be inhaled when the container is opened. The State of Minnesota and many European countries have banned it due to its harsh toxicity.
- Methylene chloride: banned by the FDA in 1988! No enforcement possible due to secret trade laws protecting the chemical fragrance industry. Is carcinogenic, absorbed in body fat, metabolises to carbon monoxide, reduces oxygen-carrying capacity of the blood and causes headache, giddiness, stupor, irritability, fatigue, tingling in the limbs and CNS disorders. Still used in shampoos, colognes, paints and varnish removers.
- Mineral oil: also called petrolatum, cheap petroleum by-product, coats the skin like plastic, clogging up pores, interferes with skin’s ability to eliminate toxins, promotes acne and eczema, and results in premature ageing. Can be absorbed through skin contact. Because it is very cheap, manufacturers use white petrolatum in moisturisers, baby oils, foundations, lipsticks, gloss and hair products, concealers, sunscreens, tanning oils, facial cleaners, etc.
- Monosodium glutamate (MSG): a neurotoxic (brain-damaging), endocrine-disrupting substance found literally in thousands of products. For more details read John Erb’s book The Slow Poisoning of North America, visit the websites www.rense.com/general64/msg.htm and www.truthinlabeling.com, and Google ‘MSG obese’.
- Nitrosamines: these are mutagens, and a number are transplacental carcinogens. They are metabolised the same way in humans and animal tissues, and it seems highly likely that humans are susceptible to the carcinogenic properties of nitrosamines. Used in thousands of consumer products such as bacon, cured meats, tobacco products, rubber products, pesticide products and certain cosmetics and chemicals. More detailed information can be obtained from the article ‘Nitrasomines and cancer’ by Richard A Scanlan, Dean of Research Emeritus and Professor of Food Science at the Linus Pauling Institute, Oregon State University (www.lpi.oregonstate.edu/giving.html#planned).
- Oxbenzone: also called benzophenone-3, benzol-5,5-methoxyphenol, 2-hydroxy-4-methoxybenzophenone, methanone, solaquin. Is an active ingredient in chemical sunscreens, and is linked to alleries, hormone disruption, cell damage and low birth weight.
- Parabens:chemical preservatives such as methyl, propyl, butyl and ethyl parabens areused in cosmetics and personal care products to prevent growth of bacteria, fungi and microbes. They are neuro- and immunotoxins and skin irritants. The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) reported that parabens displayed oestrogenic activity in several tests and can have endocrine-disrupting action. In a 2004 study, Dr Philippa Darbre at the University of Reading, UK, detected parabens in 18 of 20 breast tumour biopsy samples.The women had used underarm deodorant spray. Other scientists are also issuing warnings about parabens. Because of the possible link to breast cancer and also reproductive effects in boys, parabens are also an issue in sunscreens, since many are applied by massaging them into the skin.
- Para-phenylenediamene: also known as tetrahydro-6-nitroquinoxaline, PPD, p-diaminobenzene, p-phenylenediamine, p-aminolaniline and 1,4-benzenediamine, commonly found in hair colouring products (including those for men) and other hair products. Toxic to organs and to the immune system, an allergen and linked to dermatitis, causes cancer in laboratory animals.
- PABA (para-amino benzoic acid): can cause nausea, skin rashes and vomiting and may cause liver damage. Mainly used in commercial sunscreens.
- Phenylphenol: a known carcinogen, can affect you when breathed in and may enter the body through the skin. May irritate the eyes, respiratory system and skin, and can cause abdominal cramps and pain, cough, laboured breathing. Very toxic to aquatic organisms, dangerous for the environment. Banned in Europe.
- Phosphoric acid: a clear, odourless, colourless liquid that is irritating to the skin and eyes, and moderately toxic if ingested. Used in the production of soaps, detergents, fertilisers and animal food.
- Phthalates: rarely listed on labels but hidden in fragrance, found in many plastics as well as cosmetics and personal care products. Linked to liver, kidney and lung damage and are endocrine-disrupting chemicals. Exposure to phthalates during pregnancy is linked to development defects in male children, and they may also play a role in breast cancer. Some have been shown to increase proliferation of breast cancer cells in lab experiments and to reduce the effectiveness of the anti-cancer drug tamoxifen.
- Petroleum distillates: extremely hazardous for humans, may cause cancer, and can damage the lungs if swallowed. Many chemicals are petroleum based, for example 95% of all synthetic fragrances, creating serious health problems.
- Placental extract: also known as placenta, placenta protein, hydrolysed placental protein. Used in skin and hair care products.
- Polyquaternium: used e.g. in hair care products and moisturising lotions, causes allergic contact dermatitis.
- Potassium dichromate: a carcinogen. Handle with extreme caution, can affect you when breathed in, may cause skin allergy and affect the kidneys, heritable genetic damage possible, toxic to the reproductive system, causes pain, blurred vision, sore throat, wheezing, severe deep burns, nausea, vomiting, diarrhoea, shock or collapse. Very toxic, banned in EU cosmetics.
- Propylene glycol: also known as PEG, also avoid PG, and PPG. PEG possibly contaminated with 1,4-dioxane and ethylene glycol, both known carcinogens. One of the chemicals most used in cosmetics and personal care products such as creams, lotions, shampoos, conditioners, moisturisers, cleansers, hair products, perfumes, shaving creams, toothpastes, body sprays, bath oils, bubble baths, mascaras, antiperspirants, deodorants, lip glosses, etc. Also used in antifreeze and de-icing solutions for cars, boats and aircraft, and in solvents for paints, plastics, and laundry detergents. Is a skin sensitiser, causes contact dermatitis and irritation of nasal and respiratory passages, and if ingested can cause nausea, vomiting and diarrhoea. Causes itching, burning, scaling, hives and blistering of the skin, degreases the skin, and alters the skin structure, allowing other chemicals to penetrate deeper into the skin, increasing the amounts of chemicals that reach the bloodstream. Research has shown it to be mutagenic, and it can cause cardiac arrest and even damage cell DNA (genetic code). Toxic.
- Selenium sulfide: used in dandruff and scalp dermatitis treatments. May cause skin irritation, dry skin and hair loss, can irritate eyes on contact with possible eye damage, high exposure may cause headache, nausea, vomiting, garlic odour of breath, metallic taste and coated tongue. Known to cause cancer, may damage the liver and kidneys. Prolonged exposure may cause pallor, nervousness and mood changes. Banned in EU cosmetics!
- Siloxanes: used in a variety of cosmetics to soften, smooth and moisten. It is a silicone-based compound and makes hair products dry more quickly and deodorant cream slide on more easily, also used extensively in moisturisers and facial treatments, and is found in medical implants, water-repelling windshield coatings, building sealants and lubricants. A suspected endocrine disruptor and reproduction toxicant, harmful to fish and wildlife.
- Silicone-derived emollients: cyclomethicone, dimethicone, dimethicone copolyol are used in hair products and have been shown to cause skin tumours in lab tests, said to accumulate in liver and lymph nodes.
- Sodium lauryl sulphate (SLS): other names are sodium dodecyl sulphate, sodium PEG lauryl sulphate, monododecyl ester, sodium PEG lauryl ether sulphate. Makes products foamy, and is a known skin irritant that is easily absorbed. Found in as many cosmetics and personal care products as propylene glycol. The key ingredient to this foaming facial washer is a detergent that started as an industrial degreaseant and garage floor cleaner. When applied to the human skin it has the effect of stripping off the oil layer and irritates and erodes the skin, leaving it rough and pitted. Corrodes hair follicles and impedes hair growth, and penetrates the eyes, brain and liver and remains there for a long time. Degenerates cell membranes and can change the genetic information (mutagenic) in cells and damage the immune system. May cause blindness and lead to cataracts, retards the healing process. Enhances the allergic response to other toxins and allergens and can react with other toxic ingredients to form cancer-causing nitrosamines. The US government has warned manufacturers of unacceptable levels of dioxin formation in some products containing this ingredient.
- Sodium laureth sulphate (SLES): chemical name sodium lauryl ‘ether’ sulphate. An ether chain is added to SLS, used in cleansers, conditioners and shampoos. It is very inexpensive, but thickens when salt is added in the formula and produces a high level of foam. Also used as wetting agent in the textile industry. Irritates the skin and scalp and creates itching, may cause hair loss.
- Sodium PCA (Na-PCA): PCA = pyrrolidone carboxylic acid. The natural version is derived from fruits, grasses and vegetables, occurs naturally in skin, binding moisture to cells. However, the synthetic version causes throat irritation and lung constriction, irritates the eyes, and has neurological effects such as dizziness. Classified in the EU as harmful by inhalation.
- Sodium cyanide: a highly toxic compound. Immediate medical attention is required in the event of cyanide poisoning, as it is quickly fatal. Used in extracting gold, silver and copper, and as a poison to control indoor pests. Irritates and severely damages tissues of eyes, skin, respiratory tract and gastro-intestinal tract; inhalation results in headaches, dizziness, convulsions, vomiting and unconsciousness.
- Sodium oleth sulphate: used in shampoos, liquid hand soaps, makeup removers, conditioners, body washes, cleansers, bubble baths, antibacterial skin cleansers. May contain levels of ethytlene oxide and or dioxane, both potent toxins.
- Styrene monomer: causes sensitisation by skin contact, throat irritation and lung constriction, irritation of the eyes, dizziness.
- Talc: also called French talc or cosmetic talc. Used as cosmetic talcum powder to absorb moisture in blushes, make-up, and baby powders, as a food additive and in pharmaceutical products. Several studies have established preliminary links between talc and pulmonary problems, and lung, skin and ovarian cancer. It is a probable respiratory toxin, and causes tumours in animals.
- Toluene: other names include toluene-2,5-diamine, toluene-2,5-diamine sulphate, methylbenzene, benzene, methl; also avoid butylated hydroxytoluene. A possible hormone disruptor and known immune system toxicant, sometimes hidden in fragrance, used as a solvent and chemical intermediate. When inhaled causes sore throat, dizziness, drowsiness, headache, nausea, unconsciousness, abdominal pain and skin allergy, and irritates the nose and mouth. Repeated exposure may cause liver, kidney and brain damage, and even death; possible risk of harm to unborn child. Harmful, highly flammable, toxic.
- Triethanolamine (TEA): synthetic emulsifier, highly toxic, also used as a pH adjuster. Over 40% of cosmetics containing it have been found to be contaminated with nitrosamines, which are potent carcinogens. Harmful if swallowed, and an irritant corrosive that can cause serious damage to eyes. Avoid skin and eye contact, avoid breathing vapours if generated.
- Triclosan: also called Microban, basically used as an antimicrobial or antibacterial to prevent growth of harmful bacteria, viruses and fungi in a huge variety of household goods and personal care products such as antibacterial soaps, liquid hand soaps, deodorants, toothpastes, processed foods, clothing, dish soaps, detergents, floor washes, counter and disinfecting sprays, glass cleaners, mouthwashes, laundry soaps, lotions, moisturisers, children’s toys and cleaning supplies. Suspected to be a carcinogen and endocrine disruptor. Studies have shown that triclosan may promote the emergence of bacteria that are resistant to antibiotics. It may also cause allergy and asthma in children, can interfere with the thyroid hormones, and is a health hazard to humans and wildlife. The American Medical Association suggests that consumers should check product ingredients lists for triclosan, tricocarban and quaternary ammonium compounds, and it is sometimes listed as Microban.
[Size as references]Healthy Beauty by Samuel SEpstein, MD (with Randall Fitzgerald), a guide to ingredients to avoid and products you can trust, has a tear-out sheet that lists 113 additional hazardous toxic chemicals.
For more information on dangerous chemicals in cosmetics and personal care products, check the following books and websites:
- Antczak S, Antczak G. Cosmetics Unmasked. Harper-Collins, 2001.
- Vance J. Beauty To Die For. ProMorion Publishing, 1998.
- Deacon G. There’s Lead in your Lipstick. Penguin, 2011.
- Fagin D, Marianne Lavelle M. Toxic Deception. Common Courage Press, 1999.
- Stauber J, Rampton S. Toxic Sludge is Good for You. Common Courage Press, 1995.
- Parker R. And the Waters Turned to Blood. Touchstone Books, 1997.
- Hillary E. Children of a Toxic Harvest. Lothian, 1997.
- Carson R. Silent Spring. Houghton Mifflin, 2002.
- Erickson K. Drop Dead Gorgeous. McGraw-Hill, 2002.
- Farlow C. Dying To Look Good. Kiss For Health Publishing, 2001.
- Smeh NJ. Health Risks in Today’s Cosmetics. Sports Touch, 1995.
- Epstein SS, Steinman D. The Safe Shopper’s Bible. MacMillan, 1995.
- Rapp DJ. Our Toxic World. Environmental Research Foundation, 2004.
- Arthur Kallelt A, Schlink FJ. 100 000 000 Guinea Pigs – Dangers in Everyday Foods, Drugs and Cosmetics. Vanguard Press, first published 1933.
- Malkan S. Not Just a Pretty Face. New Society Publishers, 2007.
- Epstein SS, Fitzgerald R. Healthy Beauty. Ben Bella Books, 2009.
http://www.toxicfreecanada.ca/pdf/CancerSmart_3.1_final.pdf (CancerSmart Consumer Guide)